(meteorobs) Re: meteorobs-digest V3 #174

What happened?

I got ten copies of the same digest!

Did a Bug get in your computer? Or was this an example of what we are going
to get from the Leonids on next November 18th?


-----Original Message-----
From: meteorobs-digest <owner-meteorobs-digest@jovian.com>
To: meteorobs-digest@jovian.com <meteorobs-digest@jovian.com>
Date: Thursday, November 11, 1999 10:13 AM
Subject: meteorobs-digest V3 #174

>meteorobs-digest      Thursday, November 11 1999      Volume 03 : Number
>Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1999 16:17:18 GMT
>From: Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov>
>Subject: (meteorobs) '99 Leonid Meteor Watch An Expanded Effort
>Dept. of Communications and Public Affairs
>University of Western Ontario (UWO)
>London, Ontario, Canada  N6A 5B8
>Tel. (519)661-2045   Fax: (519)661-3921
>FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 25, 1999
>A team of UWO researchers is stepping up its efforts this year to monitor
>November's rare and potentially-hazardous Leonid meteor stream.
>The stream, scheduled to pass through the Earth's atmosphere on Nov. 17 and
>18, could produce hundreds to thousands of meteors per hour. A potential
>storm component may result in much higher rates -- causing a spectacular
>display of faint meteors in some parts of the world but also a potential
>risk to any of the close to 600 operational satellites orbiting Earth.
>"The Leonid shower hits its peak every 33 years and this is the peak year,"
>says team member Margaret Campbell, a PhD student in physics and astronomy.
>The UWO team led a monitoring effort from Mongolia and Australia last year
>as a lead-up to this year's anticipated larger storm.
>With financial and logistical backing from the U.S. Air Force, NASA, the
>Canadian Space Agency, Canada's Department of National Defence, and the
>European Space Agency, the researchers are setting up monitoring sites in
>seven locations around the world.
>Kerry Ellis, a UWO graduate, will operate an Australian-built radar that
>uses high-tech Canadian-designed and constructed radar antennas that will
>monitor the Leonid stream from Alert, Nunavut. Special electro-optical
>equipment will be set up at sites in Hawaii, Florida, the Canary Islands,
>Kwajalain Atoll in the Marshall Islands and at two sites in the Negev
>Desert, Israel to record the storm as it develops. The data collected from
>these seven sites will be transferred to a communications centre at NASA's
>Marshall Space Flight Centre in Huntsville, Alabama. From Alabama, NASA and
>UWO researchers will compile and profile the data so government, military
>and commercial satellite operators can access it.
>Physics and astronomy professor Jim Jones together with engineering
>Alan Webster and UWO graduate Bruce McIntosh will help lead the NASA team
>Alabama. Professor Robert Hawkes of Mount Allison University and UWO
>and astronomy graduate students Margaret Campbell and Simona Nikolova will
>manage the sites in Israel.
>Peter Brown, a physics and astronomy research associate at Western, is
>the overall project manager for the monitoring effort. He will be at the
>observation site in the Canary Islands during the storm.
>Brown stresses the long-term objective of the meteor watch is to gain
>insight into how comets and meteoroids streams form and evolve.
>"Comets are made of materials formed long before life existed on Earth," he
>says. "Understanding them may help us understand how life evolved on our
>The monitoring sites were chosen because they lie along what is expected to
>be the best longitude for viewing. The storm is predicted to peak at
>approximately 9:20 p.m. EST on Nov. 17.
>Sky watchers shouldn't expect to see much activity in southern Ontario
>however, says Brown.
>"We're not in a good location for viewing," he says. "While this year's
>storm is expected to present a higher risk to satellites, it is largely
>because there are more small particles. That means fewer bright fireballs,
>even for people in the best geographical location."
>Campbell will travel to Israel on Nov. 10 to set up the sites there. Brown
>will depart for the Canary Islands on Nov. 11. Other scientists from around
>the world will be involved at all sites.
>For more information, Margaret Campbell can be reached until Nov. 10 at
>(519) 850-2385. Peter Brown can be reached between Oct. 29 and Nov. 11 at
>(519) 661-2111 ext. 86458. Judy Noordermeer, Communications and Public
>Affairs, can be contacted at (519) 661-2111 ext. 85468.
>Attention Broadcasters: Western has installed Bell's VideoROUTE service
>allows for live or pre-taped broadcast interviews with television studios.
>To arrange to interview the experts on this story using this service,
>call (519) 661-2111 ext. 85468 or ext. 85165. A 30-second Betacam animation
>clip of the comet and storm is also available.
>                              ***
>                     QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
>What is the difference between a meteor, a meteoroid and a meteorite?
>A meteoroid is any solid particle larger than a molecule and smaller than
>asteroid which is in orbit about the sun. When a meteoroid collides with
>Earth, the frictional heating with the Earth's upper atmosphere produces
>light, heat and (for deeply penetrating meteoroids) sound phenomena called
>a meteor. If a meteoroid is large enough to survive its passage through the
>atmosphere as a ponderable mass it is termed a meteorite. The Leonid shower
>does not produce meteorites as the meteoroids move too fast to allow any
>material to survive.
>What is a meteor shower?
>A meteor shower occurs when the Earth, in its annual journey around the
>passes through a stream of dust particles (called a meteoroid stream)
>along the path of a comet. Dust particles from the stream collide with the
>Earth's upper atmosphere at speeds of up to 72 kilometres per second (260
>times the speed of sound) and are rapidly vaporized at heights between 80
>and 120 kilometres above the ground, producing the brief streaks of light
>that we call a meteor shower.
>What is the Leonid Meteor Shower?
>First reported by Chinese astronomers in 902 A.D., the Leonid meteor shower
>is so named because it appears to radiate from the constellation Leo. It is
>normally observed every year between November 14 and 20 during which time
>many as 20 meteors are visible each hour. However, the shower is most
>for the periods of much greater activity that have, with a few exceptions,
>occurred at intervals of about 33 years. This is a year in which greater
>activity is possible.
>At its peak this year on Nov. 17, hundreds to thousands of meteors an hour
>could hurtle through the sky. Although most meteoroids will be no larger
>than a grain of sand, the shower has been so active in the past that it has
>taken on the appearance of falling snow.
>What's the difference between the '99 Leonid storm and the '98 Leonid
>This year's storm will almost certainly be as intense, or more intense than
>last year -- this is the peak of its 33-year cycle. While the meteoroids
>will be smaller this year, the risk to satellites will be greater because
>of their greatly increased numbers. Smaller particles also mean there will
>be fewer bright fireballs than were seen last year.
>What's the danger?
>Although small, the meteoroids are moving so fast that they possess a great
>deal of energy. They could poke holes in solar panels, pit lenses, blast
>reflective coating off mirrors, short out electronics with a burst of
>electromagnetic energy, or even damage computers on satellites. While some
>military satellites are better shielded because they are built to withstand
>nuclear assault, other spacecraft are not as protected.
>In Canada, for example, damage to any of the Anik satellites might shut
>TV transmission, some telephone service, electronic banking, and airline
>travel reservation systems. The Leonids could also harm the American Hubble
>space telescope and the Russian space station Mir, for example.
>Why monitor the shower from Israel, Hawaii, Florida, the Marshall Islands
>and the Canary Islands?
>The Leonid meteor shower will be most intense across the longitudes of
>Israel and the Canary Islands. The other sites cover a wide spread in
>longitudes, allowing observation of the shower for 18 continuous hours,
>even though it will be up in darkness for only about six hours from any
>individual site. These locations also have a good probability of clear
>skies -- necessary for the electro-optical equipment. The radar has been
>set up in Alert because the shower will be visible 24 hours a day there.
>Alert is also too far north for aurora, which interfere strongly with radar
>Will we see the Leonids in Southern Ontario?
>Southern Ontario is not a good viewing location for the Leonid meteor
>The shower will be strongest around the longitudes of Europe and the Middle
>East; however, Europe has a low chance of clear skies in mid-November, so
>is not the best observing location.
>What scientific questions can meteor monitoring answer?
>The long-term objective of the Leonid meteor watch is to gain better
>into how comets and meteoroid streams form and evolve. Comets are made up
>of material originating from a halo of ice and dust that has surrounded the
>solar system long before life existed on Earth. Understanding them may help
>scientists understand how life evolved on our planet.
>How will we know if satellites are at risk of being hit?
>The real-time reporting system being coordinated through NASA's Marshall
>Space Flight Centre in Huntsville, Alabama will be the only coordinated,
>multi-instrument means of providing immediate warning about the shower
>strength and severity. By analyzing the strength of the shower in
>real-time, scientists will be able to provide some advanced warning about
>the most probable time for the showers peak and, less reliably, its peak
>Who are the members of the research team at The University of Western
>* Dr. Peter Brown, research associate, physics and astronomy -- project
>  manager
>* Dr. Jim Jones, professor of physics and astronomy -- principal
>  investigator
>* Dr. Alan Webster, professor of engineering science -- co-investigator
>* Margaret Campbell, PhD student in physics and astronomy
>* Simona Nikolova, master's student in physics and astronomy
>* Dr. Wayne Hocking, professor of physics and astronomy
>With help from:
>* Dr. Kerry Ellis, Communications Research Centre, Ottawa
>* Dr. Bruce McIntosh, formerly of the National Research Council, Ottawa
>To UNSUBSCRIBE from the 'meteorobs' email list, use the Web form at:
>Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1999 16:33:58 GMT
>From: Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov>
>Subject: (meteorobs) Edwards To Ferry NASA Scientists Around World In 8
Days To Study Leonids
>Air Force News Service
>Released: 9 Nov 1999
>Edwards to ferry NASA scientists around world in 8 days to study Leonid
>By Ray Johnson, Air Force Flight Test Center Public Affairs
>EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. (AFPN) -- After a weak celestial show in
>1998, NASA's Peter Jenniskens dreamed of chasing Leonid meteor storms once
>again in 1999.
>"This will be our last shot at it for a century," he said after last year's
>effort. "The mission we have in mind would circle the world, and do that in
>just a few days."
>He's getting his wish with two Edwards airplanes: a modified KC-135 tanker
>called the Flying Infrared Signature Technology Aircraft, or FISTA, and an
>EC-18 that normally serves as an Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft,
>or ARIA.
>Both aircraft, which belong to the 452nd Flight Test Squadron, and 25
>airmen will ferry 50 scientists on an eight-day, 18,000-mile journey that
>will take them from the Mojave Desert to Europe to the Middle East and
>The researchers' intent: to gather data during a natural fireworks show
>called Leonid.
>A Leonid meteor shower occurs every November when Earth passes close to
>the orbit of comet Tempel-Tuttle. Usually not much happens, according to
>NASA officials. Earth plows through a diffuse cloud of old comet dust
>that shares Tempel-Tuttle's orbit, and debris burns up harmlessly in the
>Typical Leonid meteor events consist of only 10 to 20 shooting stars per
>hour. But every 33 years, that meek shower surges into a full-fledged
>storm, when thousands of shooting stars rain down from the sky hourly.
>That's what Jenniskens and his crew hope to witness on this trip.
>The two-ship formation leaves here Nov. 13 with the first stop being a
>"gas and go" at McGuire Air Force Base, N.J., said Capt. Jeff Lampe,
>aircraft commander for FISTA. From there it's on to Royal Air Force
>Mildenhall, England, where they'll launch late Nov. 16 for a seven-hour
>mission to Tel Aviv, Israel, hoping to capture a streaking light display
>in clear, dark skies.
>The next night they will leave on their main flight, an eight-hour mission
>to Lajes Field, the Azores, a small island several hundred miles off the
>coast of Portugal. It's there scientists believe they will follow a trail
>of thousands to tens of thousands of meteors per hour.
>On this route, the two Edwards planes will fly 100 miles parallel to each
>other, giving researchers "an almost stereoscopic (three-dimensional)
>viewing," said Maj. Tracy Phelps, commander of the EC-18.
>Finally, the team will fly another seven-hour mission from Lajes to Patrick
>AFB, Fla., Nov 18-19, and then return home Nov. 20.
>With powerful telescopes scattered throughout the world, some people might
>wonder why take such a time-consuming trip. The answer: Only an airborne
>mission can bring scientists to the right place at the right time to view
>Leonid, and guarantee clear weather. Moreover, using both the FISTA and
>C-18 allows scientists to measure meteor trajectories and orbits in space
>along with triangulating data.
>Indeed, this mission centers on two Edwards aircraft serving as observation
>platforms for cameras and investigative instruments. Therefore, both planes
>have undergone modifications for the journey, including installation of
>optical windows, special camera gear and antenna mounts.
>And besides helping collect data for NASA, the C-18 also will downlink
>real-time video for Air Force Space Command.
>Capt. Jon Haser participated in last year's Leonid event and will be going
>again this year. He said the crews didn't get the expected meteor storm.
>"It was sporadic, but they were some persistent trails that lasted five
>seconds or so. Hopefully, the sky's alive this time."
>Maybe he will get to witness what James Young of the Jet Propulsion
>Laboratory's California Table Mountain Observatory did in 1966, when the
>last great Leonid storm occurred. He remembers a heaven "absolutely full"
>of meteors. Young called it a "sight never imagined ... and never seen
>IMAGE CAPTIONS: [http://www.af.mil:80/news/Nov1999/n19991109_992056.html]
>[Image 1]
>An EC-18 aircraft from the 452nd Flight Test Squadron, Edwards Air Force
>Base, Calif., will transport NASA scientists overseas to study the Leonid
>meteor storm. The EC-18, which normally serves as an Advanced Range
>Instrumentation Aircraft, or ARIA, also will downlink real-time information
>to Air Force Space Command during the storm. (Courtesy photo)
>[Image 2]
>Capt. Jamie McKeon, left, Capt. Jon Hasser, Capt. Jeff Lampe and Maj. Tracy
>Phelps plan the 452nd Flight Test Squadron's eight-day mission for the
>Leonid meteor shower. The Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., unit is flying
>NASA scientists overseas to study the Leonid meteor storm in modified EC-18
>and KC-135 aircraft. (Photo by Dennis Taylor)
>To UNSUBSCRIBE from the 'meteorobs' email list, use the Web form at:
>Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1999 12:31:43 EST
>From: PBitterly@aol.com
>Subject: Re: (meteorobs) Edwards To Ferry NASA Scientists Around World In 8
Days To St...
>Any idea what this is going to cost and when will the results/findings be
>To UNSUBSCRIBE from the 'meteorobs' email list, use the Web form at:
>Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1999 21:47:22 +0100
>From: "Miquel A. Serra" <MIQUELSERRA@teleline.es>
>Subject: (meteorobs) Southern taurids.
>This is a multi-part message in MIME format.
>- ------=_NextPart_000_0025_01BF2BC5.2BA5C8A0
>Content-Type: text/plain;
> charset="Windows-1252"
>Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
>    On my web you can find my observations about southern taurids.=20
>    Sincerelly.
>          ----Masm----
>- ------=_NextPart_000_0025_01BF2BC5.2BA5C8A0
>Content-Type: text/html;
> charset="Windows-1252"
>Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
><!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
><META content=3D"text/html; charset=3Dwindows-1252" =
><META content=3D"MSHTML 5.00.2014.210" name=3DGENERATOR>
><BODY bgColor=3D#c0c0c0>
><DIV><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS" size=3D2>Hi:</FONT></DIV>
><DIV><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS" size=3D2>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; On my web =
>you can find=20
>my observations about southern taurids. </FONT></DIV>
><DIV><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS" size=3D2>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;=20
><DIV><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"=20
>- ----Masm----<BR><A=20
>- ------=_NextPart_000_0025_01BF2BC5.2BA5C8A0--
>To UNSUBSCRIBE from the 'meteorobs' email list, use the Web form at:
>Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1999 14:11:31 -0800
>From: Robert Lunsford <lunro.imo.usa@prodigy.net>
>Subject: (meteorobs) Nov 9/10 Meteor Observations From California
>My first observing session of November was held in the mountains of
>Southern California. I watched for 3 hours and faced northward to try
>to verify any Linearid activity. Out of 37 meteors seen this morning
>only 1 was a candidate for the Linearid shower. This is a stretch as
>came from an area 5 degrees east of Phecda, which is the wrong side of
>this star.
>As for the Leonids, I had a couple of candidates but their velocity was
>too slow for the area of the sky in which they appeared. There was
>though, two active radiants in Cancer producing swift meteors. The
>first was near 136 (09:05) +22 which can probably be associated with
>the apex radiant. This produced 3 meteors. The second radiant, which
>produced 3, and possibly 4 meteors, was centered at 133 (08:55) +32.
>These 7 meteors were very "Leonid-like" and could have easily been
>labeled as Leonids for anyone not plotting.
>The Taurids were fairly active, especially the Northern branch. The
>highlight of the session was the fact the temperatures were still mild
>when I had expected sub-freezing temperatures. The low point was being
>harassed by mosquitoes who seem to have been as numerous as the
>meteors. Don't they know it's time to head south for the winter?
>November 9/10 1999
>1015-1115 UT  0.93  6.62  1 NTA   1 STA   6 SPO    8  TOTAL
>1115-1215 UT  0.90  6.61  1 NTA   0 STA  12 SPO   13  TOTAL
>1215-1315 UT  0.88  6.50  4 NTA   0 STA  12 SPO   16  TOTAL
>TOTALS:       2.71  6.58  6 NTA   1 STA  30 SPO   37  TOTAL
>The first column gives the period watched stated in Universal Time (UT)
>which is PST + 8 hours. The second column gives the percent of that
>particular hour actually spent observing the sky. Time was lost for
>plotting and data entry tonight. The third column gives the average
>limiting magnitude estimated during each period with a minimum of 4
>estimates using at least 2 and preferably 3 different sky areas close to
>my center of view. The last several columns list the activity seen
>during each period.
>I was facing North at an altitude of 70 degrees during the entire
>session. No breaks were taken. NTA = Northern Taurids, STA = Southern
>Taurids, and SPO = Sporadic (random activity).
>Beginning Temperature/Relative Humidity:   47 F (8 C)  36%
>Ending         "         "         "       44 F (7 C)  37%
>NTA:    0 (1) +1 (1) +2 (1) +3 (2)+4 (1)              AVERAGE: +2.17
>STA:   +2 (1)                                         AVERAGE: +2.00
>SPO:    0 (3) +1 (4) +2 (1) +3 (8) +4 (12) +5 (1) +6 (1)
>                                                      AVERAGE: +2.97
>Bob Lunsford
>San Diego, CA USA
>To UNSUBSCRIBE from the 'meteorobs' email list, use the Web form at:
>Date: Thu, 11 Nov 1999 01:52:18 +0100
>From: Casper ter Kuile <pegasoft@accu.uu.nl>
>Subject: (meteorobs) Leonid-Update DMS website
>Hi Leonid watchers,
>Tonight I worked hard to update our website of the Dutch Meteor Society.
>Primary URL:  http://www.dmsweb.org
>US mirror:  http://members.xoom.com/dmswebsite/index.html
>European mirror: http://home.wanadoo.nl/dms/index.html
>We cannot garantee all three sites will keep operating.
>So please bookmark these three URL's!
>With respect to the supplied information:
>Do read the latest update of the results of the Dust Trail Theory of David
>Asher and Rob McNaught!
>We invite you to have a look at the interesting Leonid-info supplied by
>Marc Gyssens of the International Meteor Organisation.
>We also included a couple of links to NASA sites and related organisations.
>And, last nut not least, do not forget to scan through our weatherlinks
>often when you are in search for a bright clear sky.
>On thursday one last update will be performed of the DMS webpages.
>All Leonid links will be moved to the Links page under leonids '99.
>Fridaynight I will carry out a very last update before we leave on
>saturdaymorning heading towards our basecamps in southern France.
> From that moment onwards we will keep in though with you via mobile
>We will publish our very first observations and other activities on the
>website and through the "meteorobs" and "imo-news" mailinglists.
>We wish all observers a clear sky and many fine Leonids!
>Don't forget the Linearids!
>Casper ter Kuile, Dutch Meteor Society (DMS)
>Akker 145, NL-3732 XD, De Bilt, The Netherlands
>Tel. +(31)-30-2203170, Fax. +(31)-30-2202695
>GSM-BEN: +(31)-6-24242445, GSM-KPN: +(31)-6-53270844
>E-mail_1: pegasoft@accu.uu.nl
>E-mail_2: dms-web@wxs.nl
>E-mail_3: webmaster@dmsweb.org
>DMS website: http://www.dmsweb.org
>Mirrorsite: http://home.wanadoo.nl/dms
>To UNSUBSCRIBE from the 'meteorobs' email list, use the Web form at:
>Date: Thu, 11 Nov 1999 08:33:16 +0100
>From: Martin Galea De Giovanni <martingd@maltanet.net>
>Subject: (meteorobs) Observations report from Malta (10-11/11/99)
>Hi ,
>Tonight was a very rewarding night regardless of the cold temperatures . It
>was worth it .
>I am submitting these observations just as i arrived back home from a whole
>night of observations (errors from lack of sleep are possible!)

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