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(meteorobs) Radio Meteor Obs. Bull. Nov 1997: Leonids!




Radio Meteor Observation Bulletin No. 52                  December 1997


1. FORWARD SCATTER METEOR OBSERVATIONS

Observer:  Enric Fraile Algeciras
Location:  Barcelona, Spain (01 59' E, 41 21' N)
Frequency: 48.250 MHz
Transmitter location: most likely Czech television C2 C. Budejovica,
           100 kW, horizontal polarisation.
Antenna:   6-element Yagi 617-6B, 14 dBd gain.
Antenna:   astronomical azimuth 215 deg (=NE), elevation 0 deg.
Receiver:  home made converter 20 dB gain, 1 dB noise and Kenwood TS-830S.
           10 dB attenuator in the receiver to reduce direct reception
Sensitivity: 0.25 uV for 10 dB S/N
Observing method: the audio signal of the video carrier is received using
           a narrow CW filter (100 Hz) and fed into the PC in real time.
Data sampling system: using a super 14 bits A/D card to PC/XT and
           "Data Capture" software with 9 second/18 sampling interval to
           store all the > 1.0 s signal increases.


     | Nov 1997
  UT |   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9
  ---+------------------------------------
   0 |   1   6   6   2   3   6   1   7   7
   1 |   1   7   2   5   7   2   2   3   4
   2 |  10  14   9   4   4  12   6   4   1
   3 |   3  10  21  13  12  14   7   5  11
   4 |   9  10  12  16  13  10  12  14  11
   5 |  15  11  19  11  18  10  10  23  11
   6 |   7   9  17  12  15  10   7  13  12
   7 |  12  12  10   8  18  10   8  10   3
   8 |   8  17   7   5   6  14   7   8   3
   9 |  11  12  11   4  18   9   8   3   4
  10 |   6  12   2   4   9   8   2  16   6
  11 |   9  19   5  11  10  12  18   2   5
  12 |   5   8   5   2   7   1   5   4   4
  13 |   6  14  13   5   3   7   2   5  11
  14 |   6   6   3  12   6   5  11   7
  15 |   9  13   9   3   7  12  10  10
  16 |   7  11   2   2   5   4   5   3
  17 |   7   7   5   7   6   3   6   7
  18 |   7   9  10   2   4   5   7   2
  19 |   5   7  11  11   4   7   7   1
  20 |   4   7   4   3   7   5   7   1
  21 |   5   7   5   2   5   5   7   8
  22 |   8  10   5   7   4   4   5   1
  23 |   8   1   7   2   2   1   7   4
  ---+------------------------------------
  UT |   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9
     | Nov 1997

     | Nov 1997
  UT |  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30
  ---+----------------------------------------------------------------
   0 |      14           1   4   3   3   1   3   1  15  12  44  15  10
   1 |       8           4  13   4   5   1   7   3   6  14  95? 14  17
   2 |      13           7   7   4   1   1   5   4  17  33 198? 18  14
   3 |      11           6   9  13   5   2   5   6  25  51  76? 49  27
   4 |      13           8  20   6  13   7   4   7  22  46  49  34  44
   5 |      15           5   8   4  10   6  11   6  22  33 156? 32  37
   6 |      13          12   9   6   8   2  10  13  17  23  62? 33  28
   7 |      14           7   2   5   6  10   9   4  13  23  60? 21  28
   8 |      29  40      13  17  11  24  11  12   9  29  26  44  21  20
   9 |      11  30      16   5   6   9   3  15   8  18  22  44  26  31
  10 |      17  17       6   4   4   2   7   4   2  28  14  38  30  30
  11 |      35  41       3  17   4   7   5  12   9  11  14  60? 26  22
  12 |                  12  12   3   4   6  10  12  17  16 132? 25  15
  13 |                  44?  5   7   2   4  12  10  31  27  22  26  19
  14 |                  45?  6   7   7   6  12  10  21  18  23  35  24
  15 |                  10   6  11   8   4   9   5  18  17  19  23  12
  16 |                   6   2   6   6   3  10  11  16  18  13  21
  17 |                   5   9   5   2   8  10  13  21  20  12  17
  18 |   7               3   4   5   7   1   3   8  10  15  12   8
  19 |   4           4   8   3   5   2   8   5  13  11  18  14  10
  20 |   6           6   7   6   4   2   6   7  17  10  10  19  13
  21 |  14           6  17   6   4   2   8   7  14  10  14  29  22
  22 |  11           3   6   2   5   3   8   6  14  16  17  20   8
  23 |   2           2   2   3   2   1   4   2   5   9  17  14  11
  ---+----------------------------------------------------------------
  UT |  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30
     | Nov 1997

Notes:
 . ? probably affected by sporadic-E, direct reception
 . Nov 16, 17 and 18: problems with the UPS, lost information.
   During the Leonids of Nov 17, I was active in 144 MHz Meteor Scatter
   between 08h00 to 12h00 UT. I had only 6 very long reflections about
   2 to 6 minutes long, but NOT a single short reflection!
   The stronger reflections were on: 07h00, 08h07, 08h20, 08h27 (lasting
   4 minutes), 08h43, 09h25, 10h00 (3 min), 10h40, 11h00 (4 min)


      Enric Fraile Algeciras

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer: Michael Boschat
Location: Halifax, Canada (63 36'W, 44 39'N, 58 meters above sea level)
Listening Frequency: 83.25 MHz
Receiver: Radio Shack PRO-60 scanner
Antenna : resonant dipole
Antenna Direction: Horizontally polarized with lobes in E-W plane, elev 0 deg
Filter  : high-Q bandpass filter between antenna & receiver.
          Q is at least 300.
Listening Mode: AM
Recording method: listening by ear

 -------------------------------------------
 1997                  Raw counts   Possible
 Date           UT     of Meteors    Shower
 -------------------------------------------
 Nov     6   1545-1645    12
             1645-1745    31
             1745-1800    27
             1800-1900     9
         7   1500-1600    19
             1600-1700    27
             1700-1800    15
         8   1500-1600     7
             1600-1700    18
             1700-1800    13
         9   1530-1630     9
             1630-1730    16
             1730-1830     6
        11   1415-1515    18
             1515-1615    20
        12   1500-1600    16
        13   0230-0330   104      Taurids N
        13   1519-1619    18
        14   0230-0330    29
        14   1530-1630    21
             1630-1730    22
        15   1200-1300    29
             1500-1600    12
             1600-1700     9
        16   0230-0330    28
        16   1500-1600     7
        17   1415-1515    57      Leonids
             1550-1650    38      Leonids
             1900-2000    12
        18   0100-0200    15
             0200-0300     9
             0825-0925    45      Leonids
        18   1120-1220    42      Leonids
             1220-1320    45      Leonids
        19   0130-0230    37      Leonids
             0230-0330    48      Leonids
        19   1140-1240    44      Leonids
        20   2300-0000     6
             0000-0100    11
             0100-0200    19
        21   1450-1550    27


      Mike Boschat

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer: Giorgio Bressan, Associazione Friulana di Astronomia e
          Meteorologia (AFAM)
Location: Remanzacco, near Udine, Italy (13.3 E, 46.1 N)
Antenna:  dipole
Frequency: 48.24049 MHz, LSB mode.
Transmitters: TV video carrier in Germany (locator JN39), 24 h operation.
Observing method: automatic setup using FFTDSP42t software by AF9Y to record
          the audio signal. 20 channels of 2 Hz width are used for meteor
          identification, pictures with interference are manually rejected.

   |  Counts of Refl.         Counts of Refl.          Counts of Refl.
   |  > 26 seconds            > 13 seconds             > 0.5 seconds
   |  Nov  1997               Nov  1997                Nov  1997
 UT|  16  17  18              16  17  18               16  17  18
---+-------------           -------------            -------------
  0|       2   1                   2   1                   41  41
  1|       2   1                   4   2                   58  58
  2|       3   1                   7   2                   54  51
  3|       3   1                   4   1                   66  42
  4|       2   1                   6   3                   70  59
  5|       5   1                  11   5                   95  48
  6|       6   2                   8   6                   73  53
  7|       8   0                  23   6                  128  67
  8|      10   4                  13   5                  102  68
  9|       6                      13                      114
 10|       8                      10                       40
 11|       1                       3                       41
 12|       1                       1                       38
 13|       0                       0                       24
 14|       0.                      0.                      13
 15|       0.                      0.                      20
 16|       0                       1                       11
 17|       0                       0                       31
 18|       0                       0                       27
 19|       0                       0                       21
 20|   0   0                   0   0                   30  22
 21|   0   0                   0   0                   28  21
 22|   0   0                   0   1                   37  31
 23|   0   2                   1   4                   38  39
---+-------------           -------------            -------------
 UT|  16  17  18              16  17  18               16  17  18
   |  Nov  1997               Nov  1997                Nov  1997

Notes:
 . FFTDSP data processed and remarks by Werfried Kuneth:
   Sporadic-E signatures where only seen for a very short period at 11h UT
   on Nov. 17. Despite the location close to Udine (large city), the recording
   is free of interference! Several meteor reflections appeared at the same
   time in Austria and Italy.
   Special thanks to Giorgio Bressan and Giovanni Sostero of AFAM for their
   great support.


      Giorgio Bressan and Giovanni Sostero / via Werfried Kuneth

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer:       Eisse Pieter (Peter) Bus
Location:       Groningen, Netherlands  (6 deg 33' E, 53 deg 13' N)
Frequency:      72.11 MHz
Transmitter Location: Wroclaw, Poland, 130 kW, Distance 740 km
Antenna:        Yagi, 3 elements, geographical azimuth 106 deg (ESE),
                elevation 13 deg
Receiver:       Bearcat UBC 860 XLT Scanning Radio, sensitivity: 0.5 uV
Observation method: Listening and counting in 5-minute intervals.


 Mean "sporadic" activity of long-duration reflections > 7 s
 on 1997 November 2, 8, 9, 12 and 14 starting at UT:
 --------------------------------------------------------------
 4h     5h     6h    7h    8h    9h    10h    11h    12h   13h
 --------------------------------------------------------------
 3      3      2     2     2     2      2      2      1     1
 --------------------------------------------------------------

 On November 9, 12 and 14 only a part of the observation period is monitored:
 Nov 9: 8-14h UT, Nov 12: 4-6h UT, Nov 14: 6-14h UT.

 No long-duration (> 20 s) reflections monitored

 Uncorrected counts of long-duration reflections > 7 s
 during one hour starting at UT:

  ------------------------------------------
     UT      15 Nov  16 Nov  17 Nov  18 Nov
  ------------------------------------------
     5h         -       -       18       -
     6          2       4       19      11
     7          2       8       22      12
     8          4       7       12      10
     9          4       5       13       8
    10          2       4       19       5
    11          -       -       16       -
    12          -       -        5       -
    13          -       -        4       -
  ------------------------------------------

 Uncorrected counts of long-duration reflections > 20 s
 during one hour starting at UT:

  ------------------------------------------
     UT      15 Nov  16 Nov  17 Nov  18 Nov
  ------------------------------------------
     5h         -       -       13      -
     6          0       0       12      7
     7          1       3       10      7
     8          1       1       12      1
     9          1       0       5       3
    10          1       0       8       1
    11          -       -       6       -
    12          -       -       1       -
    13          -       -       1       -
  ------------------------------------------

 Total reflection time of long-duration reflections > 20 s
 in seconds during one hour starting at UT:

  ------------------------------------------
    UT      15 Nov  16 Nov  17 Nov  18 Nov
  ------------------------------------------
    5h         -       -     883       -
    6         24      31    1062     638
    7         29     436    1124     721
    8         65     115    2532     215
    9        161      49     678     306
   10         47      29     904      65
   11          -       -     423       -
   12          -       -     116       -
   13          -       -     117       -
  ------------------------------------------

Notes:
 . After correction for dead-time and observability function a maximum is
   found between 10h30m and 11h15m UT at Solar Longitude 235.16 (2000.0).

   For mid-point of the transmitter-receiver path counts:
      radiant is  rising on November 16 at about 21h30m UT
      radiant is setting on November 17 at about 13h40m UT
   Most favourable antenna-geometry for detecting Leonids between 5h45m and
   7h30m UT.
   Unfavourable antenna-geometry after 10h UT.
   Very unfavourable antenna-geometry after 12h UT.


      Peter Bus

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer: Norman Davis
Location: Shingle Springs, California USA (120.57 W, 38.41 N)
Antenna:  3 element TV Yagi, Radio shack 10db preamp and antenna direction
          east, elevation 40 deg.
Receiver: IC-7000 at 67.2499 MHz, USB Mode.
Transmitters: unknown TV channel 4 that could be anywhere between me and
          New York.
Observing method: automatic setup using FFTDSP42t software by AF9Y to record
          the audio signal. Sound card SB AWE-64. 20 channels of 2 Hz width
          are used for meteor identification, pictures with interference or
          sporadic-E propagation are manually rejected.

   |  Counts of refl.     Counts of refl.          Counts of refl.
   |  > 30 seconds        > 8 seconds              > 2.5 seconds
   |
   |  Nov  1997           Nov 1997                 Nov 1997
 UT|  17  18  19          17  18  19               17  18  19
---+-------------        ------------             ------------
  0|           0                   1                       14
  1|           0.                  2.                      13
  2|
  3|
  4|       0.                  2.                      13
  5|   0   0               1   0                   20  16
  6|   1   0               7   1                   27  30
  7|   2   0               4   2                   25  26
  8|   1   0              13   2                   21  20
  9|   8   2              15   5                   31  30
 10|  10   0              23   3                   36  35
 11|  10   1              28   6                   34  24
 12|  15   1              34   4                   29  40
 13|  16   0              36   4                   31  36
 14|  18   2              37   5                   30  26
 15|  18   0              37   2                   19  24
 16|  11   0              36   6                   31  34
 17|       0                   6                       41
 18|
 19|
 20|
 21|       0                   0                       18
 22|       0                   0                       15
 23|       0                   0                        7
---+-------------        ----------------         ------------
 UT|  17  18  19          17  18  19               17  18  19
   |  Nov  1997           Nov  1997                Nov  1997

Notes:
 . data reduced and remarks by Werfried Kuneth:
   during the Leonids shower peak up to 5 TV video carriers showed up a few
   100 Hz near each other. Only one TV video carrier was selected for
   processing, this one was available for 24 hours. Sporadic-E or direct
   reception appeared for 4 hours on Nov 18, after 17h UT, the Leonids peak
   was without any sporadic-E signatures. Thanks to Norman Davis for sharing
   the FFTDSP data with me.


      Norman Davis / via Werfried Kuneth

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer: Maurice De Meyere
Location: Deurle, Belgium  (3 37' E, 51 00' N)
Frequency: 66.51 MHz
Transmitter locations (all stations of more than 10 kW):
   66.35 MHz, Klaipeda, Lithuania  12 kW, 05h00-22h00
   66.41      Siedlce   Poland     39     04h57(Sun05h57)-02h00(Sat03h00)
   66.47      Viesintos Lithuania  12     05h00-22h00
   66.56      Poznan    Poland     56     04h57(Sun05h57)-02h00(Sat03h00)
   66.62      Budapest  Hungary   100     24hrs
   66.68      Valmiera  Latvia     20     06h00-22h00
Antenna: crossed Yagi, 4 elements, astronomical azimuth 270 deg (= E),
         elevation 27 deg.
         Antenna amplifier: 25 dB  max level  90 dBmuV
Receiver: commercial, Progresson 447A, TESLA (Bratislava)
         The receiver was calibrated with a Marconi TF2008 signal
         generator. Sensitivity: 5 muV (modulation frequency
         1000 Hz, frequency sweep 38 kHz) at (S+N)/N = 20 dB

Observing method: automated setup, 150 samples/second, 8 bit resolution.
         [Time and details of all individual meteor reflections are stored
         on file in the University of Ghent format  (Prometeos), and are
         available for further analysis. Reduction software for DOS and
         Windows available].


                          October 1997

   Raw counts of reflections with a duration of at least 0.027 s
   during one hour interval starting at UT:

   Oct |   UT
  1997 |   20h  21   22   23   00   01   02   03   04   05   06   07
 ------+------------------------------------------------------------
  1- 2 |   35   64   72   62   75   63   68   77   86  111  125
  2- 3 |   47   42   45   46   59   77   90   89  108   99   96
  3- 4 |   27   47   49   59   64   65   68   75   82  120  150
  4- 5 |   45   53   53   62   54   67   76   82  100   99   87
  5- 6 |
  6- 7 |   21   37   46   55   47   71   69   83   89   57   80
  7- 8 |   30   41   48   49   71   85   91  102  103   78   60
  8- 9 |   21   30   54   70   83   72  105   91   79  125   80
  9-10 |   19   41   58   73  110   93   96  106   64  110   51
 10-11 |   18   38   51   53   60   71   75   58   70   75   58
 11-12 |   24   28   51   49   71   61   60   76   73   78   63
 12-13 |   11   16   23   29   34   38   57   83   42   40   54
 13-14 |   15   27   22   40   38   45   61   54   60   97   44
 14-15 |   12   27   44   58   52   56   68   66   64   48   71
 15-16 |   19   39   32   50   40   75   79   77   83   81   75
 16-17 |    8   27   42   61   63   68   83   68   82  114   57
 ------
 24-25 |   31   30   23   31   46   65   67  147   97  177   97
 25-26 |    7   14   25   44   51   59   81   97   88   78   83   84
 26-27 |    0   28   29   42   56   65   70   68   76   84   95   90
 27-28 |    3   17   19   38   29   65   64   88  101   90  130   82
 28-29 |    5   21   43   35   44   39   63   73  126   97   90   69
 29-30 |
 30-31 |         1   18   28   24   45   54   70   76   97   84   58
 31-01 |        30   21   48   51   76   62   55  102  101  112   77
 ------+------------------------------------------------------------
  1997 |   20h  21   22   23   00   01   02   03   04   05   06   07
   Oct |   UT


   Nov |   UT
  1997 |   21h  22   23   00   01   02   03   04   05   06   07   08
 ------+------------------------------------------------------------
  1- 2 |   30   20   36   36   76   64   58   80   75   90   62
  2- 3 |
  3- 4 |   16   37   36   54   59   86   60   76   93  146   75
  4- 5 |   22   26   33   32   56  107  137   65  101   96   58
  5- 6 |   22   31   59   47   63   69   91   77   81   96  153
  6- 7 |   27   48   57   63   63   70   69   96   88   93   67
  7- 8 |   32   33   48   49   75   71   74   72   78   78   68
  8- 9 |   40   30   31   46   61   83   69   74   91  102   95
  9-10 |   19   31   41   54   66   58   80   93   80   76   82
 10-11 |   11   44   31   50   85   91   73   92  103  100   69
 11-12 |   29   39   43   55   90   64  125  109  139  129  113
 12-13 |   28   46   49   47   50   73  110   98  101  102   97
 13-14 |   33   49   58   61   75   57   94  100   92  209    -
 14-15 |   25   38   41   59   77   60   87   90  114   89  115  150
 15-16 |   22   56   66   81   79   91   69  102  125  145  257  103
 16-17 |   29   61   70  147  113  228  253  298  445  571  547  598
 17-18 |   23   79  313   87  181  155  122  154  213  307  259  223
 18-19 |   36   67   56   80   64   86  141  109  134  148  139
 19-20 |   28   51   64   85   97   67  109  119  122  165  125
 20-21 |   37   43   64   85   86   97   98   92  107  118  164
 21-22 |   34   66   65   81  101   91  106   87  126  108   97
 ------
 26-27 |   38   39   46   53   52   67   82   91   95  117   82
 27-28 |   39   40   41   47   72   96   89  107   94  103   97
 28-29 |   24   45   57   50   64   92   88   93   83  102   92
 29-30 |   25   44   46   84   75   90   93   91   88  101   92
 30-01 |   23   27   40   70   72   86  123  139   81  139   84
 ------+------------------------------------------------------------
       |   21h  22   23   00   01   02   03   04   05   06   07   08

Notes:
 . ? probably affected by sporadic-E, direct reception.
 . local time = UT + 2 hours (summer hour) until Oct 25,
   local time = UT + 1 hour (winter hour) from Oct 26 onwards.
 . Orionids on Oct 24.
 . strong Leonids activity between Nov 16-18.


      Maurice De Meyere

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Location: Astronomical Observatory, University of Ghent, Belgium
          (3 42' 32" E, 51 01' 25" N)
Antenna (2x): 4 elements horizontal Yagi, pointed East, elevation= 20 deg
Antenna amplifier: 10 dB gain
Frequency: (1)=66.29 MHz (signal) and (2)=65.3 MHz (interference control)
Receiver (2x): modified commercial FM receiver
Data acquisition: 12 bits PC-based A/D convertor, 250 Hz sampling rate
Interference rejection:
   dual setup: receiver (1) tuned at distant transmitter, receiver (2)
   tuned at empty frequency. Anti-coincidence measurement rejects
   registration of broadbanded spurious signals (lightnings, computers,
   ignition motors, etc).
Further information:
   see WWW page (additional info + observational data)
   http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~hdejongh/astro/meteor/meteor.html
Data format:
   results are shown as total reflection time, expressed as
   a percentage. The actual number shows 10 times this value.
   When no figure is shown, the equipment was either out of service,
   or results could have been affected by interference, sporadic-E.


     -----------------------------------------------------------
     | Nov 1997 | 10x % reflec. time | horiz: day | vert: time |
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
     |   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14  15
  ---+------------------------------------------------------------
   0 |  22  27  35  38  28  32  28  29  37  58  29  35  25  29  18
   1 |  25  35  40  39  28  26  37  34  50  47  38  34  30  48  50
   2 |  35  40  43  51  51  50  42  41  28  61  48  47  25  46  27
   3 |  52  58  35  38  53  82  59  51  40  57  54  74  61  65  57
   4 |  50  56  62  56  52  76  69  76  52  64  52  66  48  55  57
   5 |  44  93  70  41  70  56  74  61  71  41  66  68  39  50  56
   6 |  32  67  32  33  43  35  53  38  61  51  49  55  46  81  52
   7 |  48  51  41  32  55  64  41  42  61  63  52  37  32  96  42
   8 |  37  26  13  11  15  34  22  48  51  28  45  78  40  36  39
   9 |  39  34  18  11  29  14  23  16  48  49  36   9  19  17  58
  10 |  22  30  20   5  13  25  20  12  53  30  23  14  24  18  33
  11 |  40  26  32   6   7  19   8  32  28  27  28  14  18  34  35
  12 |  32  43  15  13  21  14  17  22  27  20  20  12  21  43  19
  13 |  21   9  15   2   4   3  35  30  15  22  11  17  18  20   9
  14 |  19  14  17   7   6   2  17  16  14  29  22   4  23   4  21
  15 |  25  20   3  10  16   3  13  16  13  38   7   5   5  11   8
  16 |  10   8   3   9  31  13  11  20  16  17  18  15  19  14  21
  17 |  13  11  12  12  12  15  22  17  22  26  14  16  24  14  19
  18 |  14  24  31  16  19  17  36  32  34  22  30  24  20  17  16
  19 |  23  31  23  20  29  41  30  41  34  30  20  21  25  29  23
  20 |  41  33  29  33  29  41  52  42  49  36  43  28  33  33  30
  21 |  43  54  49  49  42  46  81  46  55  57  42  45  62  56  39
  22 |  42  52  37  38  41  40  54      49  58  37  43  48  42  40
  23 |  27  33  30  27  31  39  35  40  40  36  38  33  37  28  25
  ---+------------------------------------------------------------
     |   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14  15


     -----------------------------------------------------------
     | Nov 1997 | 10x % reflec. time | horiz: day | vert: time |
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
     |  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30
  ---+------------------------------------------------------------
   0 |  29  89  38  46  30  30  36  25  29  37  18  26  33  26  37
   1 |  32  63  59  39  37  28  54  26  42  32  24  28  32  34  34
   2 |  32  56  79  48  64  34  26  31  30  31  24  29  62  29  48
   3 |  52 219 113  67  60  32  49  56  67  43  36  40  47  48  36
   4 |  68 236 105  76  53  49  74  79  79  45  40  44  84  54  56
   5 |  88 318  98  72  59  68  59  62      41  61  29  36  53  48
   6 | 123 367 154  77  39  53  52  73      45  43  53  40  75  48
   7 | 154 368 104  71  62  89  58  71      49  26  26  34  46  45
   8 |  77 329  61  42  31  39  45  88  52  18  20  22  51  42  39
   9 |  57 191  33  35  55  26  32  43  35  26  31  34  25  38  55
  10 |  39 242  28  22  50  38  26  33  17  28  31  34  32  40  43
  11 |  34 135   7  24  17  23  28  29  27  24  27  13  25  24  29
  12 |  28  58   4   9  26  16  22  33  21  18   8  18  20  23  26
  13 |  17  90   3  16  21   8  15  45   8  14   9  11  29  28  15
  14 |  17   5  13  16   7  16  13  24  15  10   6   7  10  51  21
  15 |  15   7   6  12  10  20  12  21  10   6   4   7  17  41  25
  16 |  17  19  20  14  15  12  14  13  12  20  15  11   6  12   9
  17 |  16  10   9  20  26  12  10  24  10  13  11  14  13  40  14
  18 |  17  19  12  19  20  20  12  36   7  18   8  24  11  24  22
  19 |  20  27  23  26  32  21  29  65  15  20  17  22  26  34  25
  20 |  37  33  39  35  34  37  29  34  29  30  28  39  41  24  34
  21 |  32  27  65  36  42  47  33  38  33  28  36  43  53  42  40
  22 |  52  36  46  34  43  55  35  43  34  34  35  52  45  56  47
  23 |  49  31  27  47  37  30  28  41  27  30  32  43  38  32  39
  ---+------------------------------------------------------------
     |  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30


Notes:
 . no alpha Monocerotids (Nov 22)
 . good Leonid activity between Nov 16-18, comparable to last year
 . local time = UT + 1 hour
 . little interference during the month of November 1997


      Pierre De Groote

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer: Werfried Kuneth
Location: Ferndorf, Austria (13 37' E, 46 45' N)
Antenna:  3 element Yagi, direction south, elevation 65 deg
Receiver: IC-706 at 53.76060 MHz, CW-R mode, 500 Hz CW filter, fast AGC.
Transmitters: 1) 30 kW TV video carrier from Bari, Italy, distance 700 km,
          direction south 2) a 30 kW TV video carrier from Sicilia,
          Italy, distance 900 km, south. Both transmitters are processed
          within the same 40 Hz virtual receiver channel.
Observing method: automatic setup using FFTDSP42t software by AF9Y to record
          the audio signal. 20 channels of 2 Hz width are used for meteor
          identification, pictures with interference, sporadic-E, E-layer
          and FAI propagation are manually rejected.

 All meteor counts below are corrected for a full hour observing time. If
 the recording duration is 20-40 minutes, a dot is shown after the value.
 Data for less than 20 minutes observing time are not shown here.


 Counts of reflections longer than 6.5 seconds: assumed to be overdense.

   |   Nov  1997
 UT|  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14
---+--------------------------------------------------------
  0|  4   2.  2   2   4   3   0   6   0   5   5   3   0   0
  1|  2   2   3   2   2   3   1  10   3   3   1   1   1   2
  2|  3       1   1   5   7   1   1   4   5   3   1   2   1
  3|  2   2.  4   4   2   0   4   3   7   4   2   0   1   5
  4|  1   1   3   2   4   1   3   4   2   2   6   0   2   7
  5|  1   1   7   0   6   0   2   4   3   3   1   1   4   2
  6|  5   4   7   4  10   0   2.  2   6   0   1   0.  7  15
  7|  3   5   2   2   5   7   1   3   2   3   2   6   3   6
  8|  8   6   3   5   5   2   3   1   4   2   3   2   2   7
  9|  1   7   7   5   8   1   5   8.  3   5   1   2   3   2
 10|  5   5   4   0   3   2   2   2.  0   1   4   1   7   4.
 11|  2   0   0   2   2   2   3   1       2   0   0   1   1
 12|  2   3   1   3   3   0   0   2       1   1   0   5   3.
 13|  0   1   3   3   1   2   1   0       2   0   3   5   2
 14|  0   0.  1   3   0   0   1   4       3   2   0   0   4
 15|  0   0   1   0   0   1   2           1   0   1   0.  2
 16|  2       0.              0   0.  0.      0   0   1   0
 17|  0       1                               2       0.  2
 18|  0   0.  1                   0.  0   0               0
 19|  0   0   2               0.  1   0   0               0
 20|  0   1   7   0   4.  2   2   1   3   0           0.  4
 21|  0   2   9.  0   4   0   5   2   4   0       0   2   0
 22|  1   0   1   3   4   0   4   2   0   0   2   0   4   4
 23|  1   0   3   2   2   0   2   4   2   3   0   1   4   2
---+--------------------------------------------------------
 UT|  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14
   |   Nov  1997

   |   Nov  1997
 UT| 15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30
---+----------------------------------------------------------------
  0|  6   4  10   6   1   3   3   2   4   5   2   0   1   5   2   4
  1|  5   4  20   9   1   1   2   0   1   2   3   3   3   2   5   8
  2|  4   9  11  13   2   4   7   4   2   1   1   1   4   3  10   3
  3|  4   9  17  14   2   3   3   4   7   3   3   1   6   1   4   4
  4|  3   9  25  17   8   5   4   5   4   2   2   4   3   6   6   3
  5|  7   7  37  16   3   5   3   0   0   1   5  11   5   2   3   1
  6|  4   9  38  21   7   6   6   6   3   2   3   5   4   8   7   3
  7|  2.  7  38  12   3   1   4   5   0   1   3   6   4   0   0   7
  8|  6   9  45.  7  10   6   4   6   3   1   1  10   2   5   4   3
  9| 10   8       4   1   6  11   3   4   3   4   6   7.  2   3   3.
 10|  7.  6       5  12   5   7   3   4   1   3   3.  4.  8   5.  3
 11|  7   2.      1   7   3   3   5   8   1   4   2   2   2   6   3
 12|  1   2.      0   3   4   6   3.  0   0.  3   3   4.  4       3.
 13|      5   6   2   1   3   5   5.  3.  1   3   0   6   4   2.
 14|  2.  1   1   3   5   3   0   1   1   1   0   0.  4.  8   2
 15|  0   1   0.  3   0           0.  1   0   2       0   1   0
 16|  0   0.      0.  0.                  0   2.      0   0.
 17|  0               2.          1       1           1
 18|  2   2.          2.          0           0.      0
 19|  0   0       0.          2.  0           0       1
 20|  1   0   0   2   2   1   1   1   2       0.      1   3
 21|  2   5   0   3   1   2   2   0   1   0.  0   1   2   1   4
 22|  4   3   0   4   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   0   8   2   4
 23|  8   4   6   4   2   0   1   1   1   1   5   1   4   5   2
---+----------------------------------------------------------------
 UT| 15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30
   |   Nov  1997
     Counts           Counts          Counts
     > 13 seconds     > 3.5 sec.      > 0.5 sec
   | Nov  1997        Nov 1997        Nov 1997
 UT| 16  17  18       16  17  18       16  17  18
---+------------     ------------     ------------
  0|  0   6   3       11  20  14      341 260 265
  1|  1   7   4       15  37  24      356 317 261
  2|  2   8   6       21  27  25      366 349 284
  3|  4  10   5       16  36  31      361 379 368
  4|  3  10   8       15  45  35      359 395 324
  5|  4  22   9       16  51  28      283 295 244
  6|  5  27  13       23  50  39      314 311 274
  7|  1  24   9        9  57  24      259 248 249
  8|  2  20.  4       18  70. 11      243 368.218
  9|  3       2       17      13      214     202
 10|  1       1       14      13      226     190
 11|  0.      0        7.      8      202.    133
 12|  2.      0       10.      6      176.    170
 13|  2   3   1        6  13   6      147 165 119
 14|  0   0   0        4   3   7      103 141  93
 15|  0   0.  0        4   5.  8       90 131.111
 16|  0.      0.       0.      3.     142.     90
 17|
 18|  0.               8.             146.
 19|  0       0.       5       8.     193     190
 20|  0   0   0        6   7   7      197 214 195
 21|  2   0   0        9   4   9      229 202 216
 22|  0   0   2       11   6   8      232 226 177
 23|  1   2   2       11   7   9      232 227 187
---+------------     ------------     ------------
 UT| 16  17  18       16  17  18       16  17  18


Notes:
 . blank value means either few or no data available, interference,
   sporadic-E or FAI propagation, or offline.
 . local time conversion: 1 hour ahead of UT (05h00 UTC is 06h00 local)

 . Joint report of FFTDSP observers for the Leonids 1997:

A: Austria: Werfried Kuneth, 53.7600 MHz, transmitter in south direction.
B: Italy: Giorgio Bressan (AFAM, 48.24049 MHz, transmitter in NW direction
C: California: Norman Davis, 67.2499 MHz, transmitter direction east?

The data was processed by Werfried Kuneth. I received the recordings from
three different locations, all with a similar setup for a TV video carrier.
All observers used FFTDSP42 (by AF9Y) for recordings during the Leonids
peak on November 17, 1997.
All of these recordings have been inspected using the same manual procedure
to skip images with interference and non-meteor propagation modes, and the
same software to count the individual reflections.

Observatory C: used a different integration level (5), which gave a low number
of underdense reflections. Due to this integration level I found only one
duration level that matches all observatories (making them somewhat
comparable): A: and B: counts are of reflections longer than 13 seconds, and
C: counts longer than 16 seconds. Fortunately, this count displays the
Leonid peak very well:

       Station A        Station B        Station C
       Austria          Italy            N.California
     >13 seconds        >13 seconds      >16 seconds
   |  Nov  1997         Nov 1997         Nov 1997
 UT|  16  17  18        16  17  18        17  18
---+--------------     ------------      ---------
  0|   0   6   3             2   1
  1|   1   7   4             4   2
  2|   2   8   6             7   2
  3|   4  10   5             4   1
  4|   3  10   8             6   3             0.
  5|   4  22   9            11   5         0   0
  6|   5  27  13             8   6         1   0
  7|.  1  24   9            23   6         3   0
  8|   2  20.  4            13   5         7   0
  9|   3       2            13            13   4
 10|.  1       1            10            13   0
 11|   0.      0             3            16   2
 12|   2.      0             1            28   2
 13|   2   3   1             0            25   2
 14|.  0   0   0             0.           30   4
 15|   0   0.  0             0.           25   1
 16|   0.      0.            1            21   1
 17|                         0                 2
 18|   0.                    0
 19|   0       0.            0
 20|   0   0   0         0   0
 21|   2   0   0         0   0                 0
 22|   0   0   2         0   1                 0
 23|   1   2   2         1   4                 0
---+--------------     ------------      ---------
 UT|  16  17  18        16  17  18         17  18
   |   Nov  1997

There was no distinct peak visible, just the fireballs each hour.
Observatory C saw more, while there was a little bit more time between
meteors in Europe. Based upon these observations, the Leonids appeared as a
shower of very strong, long-duration meteor events, lasting for 14 (or more?)
hours, a population which is quite different to other meteor showers.

It is interesting that during the last 3 years it was shown that visual
observers do not see this number of fireballs (over horizon?).
In contrast to the very bright "fireball" end of the spectrum, the Leonids
seemed to show only little enhanced rates of "usual" meteors (positive
magnitudes) and faint meteors (> mag 6) in the years 1995, 1996 and 1997.
Detection of the Leonids was best with the radiant at more than 20 degrees
elevation. No indication of reduced numbers of events occurred with the
radiant overhead.

Special thanks to all who helped in this observation campaign.


      Werfried Kuneth

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer       : Kimio Maegawa  JA9BOH
Transmitter    : HAM beacon (JA6YBR) (50 W Morse coded , 50.017 MHz) by
                 Miyazaki-University Ham Club.
        Antenna: 1 lambda crossed loop, Az Omni 20 m H
       Location: Miyazaki city (131.43 E, 31.82 N) NE-SW path 650 km
Receiver       : IC706mk2 with high stability quartz option.
    Sensitivity: -150 dBm or lower, detect 3 dB galaxy noise variation
        Antenna: 4 element Yagi (10 dBi) 2 m above the ground, 0 deg elev.
       Location: Sugiyama Meteor Observatory, Japan (136.1E, 35.9N) 320 m ASL
Observing method:Automatic Duty Cycle measurement every minutes by Audimate
                 software by Mr. Mallama of AMS above -125 dBm threshold.
                 [see RMOB9707 for an announcement about this software]

   Time   |  Duty cycle(%) one hour average
  JST UT  |     Nov 17    Nov 18   Nov 19
  --------+--------------------------------
  00  15  |       0.3       0.5      0.2
  01  16  |       0.7       2.4      0.8
  02  17  |       0.9       3.4      0.5
  03  18  |       1.8       3.5      0.7
  04  19  |       1.6       5.0      1.2
  05  20  |       1.0       4.7      1.3
  06  21  |       2.5       6.8      0.7
  07  22  |       1.7       4.7      1.1
  08  23  |       2.0       2.6      0.8
  09  00  |       3.3       4.6      1.8
  10  01  |       1.7      10.5     27.2
  11  02  |       1.1       1.8      8.5
  12  03  |       1.3       n/a      0.6
  13  04  |       0.5       0.3      0.1
  14  05  |       0.2       0.2      0.1
  15  06  |       0.2       0.2      0.4
  16  07  |       0.2       0.1      0.1
  17  08  |       0.1       0.2      0.2
  18  09  |       0.1       0.2      0.2
  19  10  |       0.2       0.2      0.2
  20  11  |       0.3       0.2      0.5
  21  12  |       0.2       0.5      0.3
  22  13  |       0.3       0.4      0.4
  23  14  |       0.6       0.3      0.6
  --------+--------------------------------
  JST UT  |     Nov 17    Nov 18   Nov 19

Notes:
 . local time = JST = UT + 9 hours
 . Leonids Peak seemed to occur at around 6h JST or 10h JST on Nov 18.
   (21h UT on Nov 17, 01h UT on Nov 18) from my observation.
 . long echoes were detected from Nov 16 to 19 between 6h JST and 12h JST.
 . More information on HRO (Ham band Radio meteor Observation) is available at
   http://www.tcp-ip.or.jp/~kaze/rmd.htm
   http://www.fukui-nct/~kmaegawa
 . Duty Cycle Graph can be found at
   http://www.fukui-nct.ac.jp/~kmaegawa/hro/hro.html


        Kimio Maegawa

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer:    John Meyer
Location:    Van Andel Creation Research Center, Chino Valley, AZ, USA
             (112 29' 50" W, 34 50' 50" N). Elevation 1347 m above sea level.
Frequencies: 88.5, 91.1 and 91.3 MHz for signal FM receivers;
             87.9 MHz (currently an unused FM frequency) for noise FM
receiver.
Transmitter locations:  many possibilities including San Francisco (CA),
             El Paso (TX), Carson City (NV) and Tijuana (Mexico).
Antenna:     6-element FM Yagi pointed East at 40 deg elevation.
             Driven element 1.2 m above a 3.5 m square wire mash ground plane.
Antenna Amplifier: 10 dB, coax cable: 150 m of RG-8.
Receiver inputs: 10 dB pre-amplifier driving a 4-way splitter with outputs to
             each receiver.
Receivers:   Four OPTIMUS STA-800 FM receivers modified to 10 kHz band
             width using IF amplifiers with 80 dB dynamic range signal
             strength output voltages.
Data Acquisition: DATAQ type DI-190 2-channel module connected to computer
             serial input port. 40 samples per second each channel.
             Channel 1 is combined peak signal amplitudes from the three
             signal receivers. Channel 2 is signal strength from noise
             receiver. Data stored only when signal strength at antenna
             exceeds -121 dBm. Storage continues for one second after signal
             drops below -121 dBm. Interference rejection: data storage
             inhibited if interference at noise receiver's frequency exceeds
             -122 dBm at antenna. Inhibiting continues for three seconds after
             noise level drops back below -122 dBm.
Data Reduction: currently semi-manual, plan to increase automation soon.
Data Format: Results are shown as total reflection time each hour,
             expressed as a percentage.  The actual number shows 10 times
             this value. When no figure is shown, the equipment was either out
             of service, or results could have contaminated by sporadic-E or
             interference.
Further technical information: contact Jack Meyer (e-mail below)


        ------------------------------------------------------------
        |  Nov 1997 | 10x reflect. time  | horiz: day | vert: time |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
MST| UT | 16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31
---+----+---------------------------------------------------------------
 0 |  7 |     83  31  29  10  23
 1 |  8 |    102  32  25  38  29
 2 |  9 |    254  58  29  26  46
 3 | 10 |    459  43  54  47  37
 4 | 11 |    322  61  43  54  54
 5 | 12 |    404 101  55  50  72
 6 | 13 |    520  55  75  53  66
 7 | 14 |    581 100  98  64  83
 8 | 15 |    616 120 122  79  53
 9 | 16 |    458  94  70  54  58
10 | 17 |    295  69  75  43
11 | 18 |    166  94 167* 51
12 | 19 |     67  74 598* 48
13 | 20 |     44  35 270* 50
14 | 21 |     52  43  63  21
15 | 22 |     40  44  77  46
16 | 23 |     13  35  17  13
17 |  0 | 15  25  30  22  36
18 |  1 | 27  18  22  23  32
19 |  2 | 29  58  39  45  34
20 |  3 | 30  29  41  22  39
21 |  4 | 23  34  35  43  22
22 |  5 | 10  16  26  15  23
23 |  6 | 21  17  40  25  36
---+----+---------------------------------------------------------------
MST| UT | 16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31


Notes:
 . system went into operation in current form at 1700 MST November 16.
 . * increase in count Nov 19 at 1800 to 2000 UT may be sporadic-E.


      John Meyer

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer:      Sadao Okamoto
Location:      Damine Meteor Observatory, Japan (137.53  E, 35.07 N)
Transmitter:   HAM beacon (JA9YDB) for RMO  (50 W CW, 53.7500 MHz) by
               JA9BOH Kimio Maegawa. No modulation except for identification.
    Antenna:   2 element Cross Yagi 4 dBi aiming to Zenith. Omnidirectional
               in azimuth and elevation above 15 deg elevation.
   Location:   Fukui-NCT at Sabae city (136.2 E, 35.9 N)
               At present time about 10 observer are listing for
               Kimio Maegawa's 53.75 MHz beacon.
Receiver:      IC575 (CW mode 500 Hz IF filter)
 Antenna:      2 element Yagi, pointed to the zenith
Observing method: FFTDSP software,automatic data saving and manual count.

Notes:
 -: lost counts because of high noise level or machine failure.
 @: Hourly rate estimated by effective observation time less than 60 min.
 n: Contamination due to interference.
 e: Contamination due to sporadic E opening.
 f: No data available due to TX failure or maintenance
 JST = UT + 9 h

                   Hourly echoes over 10 dB SNR (about -135 dBm)

1997
Nov|00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
JST
Nov|15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 UT
---+-----------------------------------------------------------------------
01 |37 29 48 35 32 44 37 28 27  n  n  n  n  n  n  n  n  7  f  f  f  f  f  f
02 |31 51 54 59 47 58 49 32 26 25 29 21 15 21 11  9 10 13 14 17 27 35 34@35
03 |30 33 40 55 52 42 52 35 43 29 27 19 16 13 17  9 15 13  9 12 21 28 40@35
04 |36 45 56 54 54 38 43 41 32 28 20 13 13  5  5 11 14 13  8  9 25 30 36@35
05 |39 40 61 56 49 44 51 34 37 28 11 15  n  n 12  8 15 10 13 13 26 33 39@28
06 |32 39 52 58 52 48 57 49@34  n@18 28 23 11@10  9 10 12 10 18 24 37 42@28
07 |30 37 52 54 45 46 48 39 26 37 21 23 21 17 14 16 12 11 13 20 19 38 43  n
08 |42 34 60 49 60 44 45 36 52 45 26  n 18 22@21@17 18  8 15 18 24 44 32@40
09 |47 34 66 48 49 52 38 38 42 25 18@20@12  6 -- 10 16  8 15 24 29 41 37 --
10 |38 42 50 39 55 45 59 49 36 37 25 19 20 20 18 15 14 14 10 14 16 32 41@31
11 |38 34 47 41 55 48 43 49 32 33 29  n 17  n  8  7  7 14 14 22@29 34 30@43
12 |37 47 53 50 56 61 59 49 39 26 19 28 21 15 12 13 20 12 11 14 24 35 36@30
13 |30 39 45 37 39 42 39 41 32 31 26 23 23 18 14 11 11 13  9 13 19 31 28@25
14 |22 25 40 38 45 49 43 32 40 32 32 24 22 13 20 12 16 13 12 13 17 30 30@31
15 |26 22 39 36 51 54 47 27 34 34 28 24 20 30 16 15 10 17 18 11 21 29 30@26
16 |26 37 48 36 45 49 35@36 37 33 25 25 18 11 22 12 16 15 15 15 18 26 27
17 |29 37 33 33 36 34 34 28 22 27 28 23 14  9 14 12  8 15  6 12 22 25 24@20
18 |27 n   n  n@54 44 46 41 38 32 29 23 11 21 11 10 12 11  9 10 -- 38 32@43
19 | n  n  n  n  n  n  44 39 46 21 n@22 17 11  7  9 12 13 13 12 25 28 35@21
20 |28 29 51 43 44 39 42 32 48 34 19 27 19 19 14 12 13  9 16 12 13 25 29@25
21 |23 28 34 54 52 24 36 39 44 35 22 32 24 16 12 17  9 10  8 10 16 28 36@31
22 |29 35 47 47 41 56 35 33 31 43 36 26 20 -- 12 16 10 15 16 23 35 30 47 --
23 |23 39 48 49 67 53 44 48@37@38  n  n  n  n  n  n  n 11 17  n 23  n  n  n
24 | n@48 47 71 49 48 53 50 33 20 27 20@16  n 15  9  8 11 11 15 22 29 32 --
25 |40 47 55 65 57 58 50 48 45 27 24 40 22 21 15 18 19 16 18 17 16 28 40@40
26 |46 45 59 53 48 59 46 40 38 32 41 22 31 32 22 19 14 13 14  9 15 25 40@38
27 |37 35 40 66 61 68 64 55 43 30 28 28 23 21 13  9 13 11 20 18 26 38 47@37
28 |46 47 46 53 67 64 60 39 30 27 29 34 24 27 15 18 13 14  9 14 26 31 43@30
29 |26 55 53 65 60 60 65 47 40 33 39 30 26 32 23 24 13  9 @7 13 26 28 36@34
30 |38 32 43 71 61 50 58 40 36 41 21 32 17 24 22 20 13  8  7 14 27 36 40@49
---+-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Nov|15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 UT
Nov|00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
JST
1997

                   Echoes with duration > 5 s

1997
Nov|00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
JST
Nov|15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 UT
---+-----------------------------------------------------------------------
01 | 1  2  1  3     1  3  1  3              1  1
02 |    3        4     1  2  1  3        2  2  1  1                 3  2
03 | 2  1  4  3  1  1  2  4  1  1  2  3        1     1              1
04 | 2  2  1  2  1  2  3           1  2     1                       2  2  5
05 |    1  3  2  3  3  5  1  2  1     2              2        1        1  1
06 | 3  1  4  1  1        2  2     1  1                 1     1        1
07 |       5  1     1  1  2     1  1  3     1        1           1  1  2
08 |          1  2  1  1  1  6  1  2  2  2  2     2  1        2     2  1  1
09 | 1  2  5  3           4        1                 1  1              3
10 | 2  1  2  5  1  2  6  3  1  2  2  2  1  1                          1
11 | 2  2  3  1  2  3  3  4  1  2                 1  1  1           1  1  1
12 | 1     1     2  5 10  2     1     4  1        1  1        1  1  1  2
13 |             1  2  1  4  3  2  2     1  1                 1        1  1
14 |    2     3     1  1  3  1  4        1     1  1  2
15 | 3  2  3              2     2  3     1  2              1        1     2
16 |    2  3  3  2  1  1  2  2  3  1  2                 1              2
17 | 1  1  2     3  3  4  4  2  1  7           1     2              1
18 | 2  4  5  9  9 16 17 11  8  6  3  1     3                       3  4  4
19 |                      3  1  3                 1                 2  1
20 |       1  1  1  4  4  1     3  1  2     1  1     1              1
21 |       3     3  3  1  3  4  2  2  3  2  2        2
22 |          1  1  1           1  1  1              1           1  1  1
23 |          2     1  4  2  3  1
24 |    2  1  1  1  1     1  1     3  4                 1
25 | 2  1     8  1  1  3  2  3  2                          1        1
26 |    1  1  2  1  4  3  1  2  2  2     2  1        1                 1  1
27 | 3  3  2  3  2  4  5  1     2  1     2  1        1                 1
28 |          3  2     2  3  1     2     1  1                          3
29 | 1  2  5           7     4  2  2                       1           2  1
30 |       1  2  4     6  2        1              1                 1     2
---+--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nov|15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14UT
Nov|00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
JST
1997

         Daily rate of long echoes (T > 20 s)

 Nov   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14  15
 ---------------------------------------------------------------
 Rate  2   1   2   4   4   1   0   3   0   2   1   2   0   4   5

 Nov  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30
 ---------------------------------------------------------------
 Rate  6  13  41   2   3   7   1   0   3   2   3   0   2   3   0


      Sadao Okamoto / via Kimio Maegawa

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer:   Chikara Shimoda
Location:   Asahi, Nagano, Japan (137 51' E,  36 07' N)
Frequency:  81.4 MHz
Transmitter Location:  FM-Japan  81.3 MHz, 10 kW, distance 180 km
Antenna:    5 element Yagi directed to the zenith.
Receiver:   AM-FM Tuner (TRIO KT-1100)
Observing method: Meteor echoes output from center-tuning meter were
            recorded on a pen-recorder chart.


 Nov  |  UT
 1997 |  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22 | *(1) **(2)
 -----+-------------------------------------------------+-----------
   1  |  13  20  26  21  26  20  23  23  23  21  35  22 | 21.0  24.5
   2  |  16  22  18  23  21  18  25  34  21  31  31  25 | 19.7  27.8
   3  |  17  19  23  19  23  15  30  30  27  25  24  27 | 19.3  27.2
   4  |  10  22  20  16  18  21  31  26  34  28  27  32 | 17.8  29.7
   5  |  16  26  29  16  16  19  30  27  24  28  29  24 | 20.3  27.0
   6  |  22  29  25  18  18  24  38  24  27  37  30  21 | 22.7  29.5
   7  |  11  21  20  17  23  22  27  21  22  22  20  21 | 19.0  22.2
   8  |  23  16  25  21  24  30  22  26  34  33  25  19 | 23.2  26.5
   9  |  13  16  17  15  22  24  24  27  23  30  31  23 | 17.8  26.3
  10  |  17  15  23  19  23  19  22  27  22  22  28  26 | 19.3  24.5
  11  |              22  22  17  25  29  27  26  19  28 | 20.3  25.7
  12  |  15  17  23  19  11  15  24  26  27  30  28  35 | 16.7  28.3
  13  |  15  14  22  20  23  20  19  28  30  30  27  22 | 19.0  26.0
  14  |  21  20  26  22  19  16  19  27  31  34  23  31 | 20.7  27.5
  15  |  18  30  15  21  22  33  33  28  34  32  37  28 | 23.2  32.0
  16  |  25  27  22  24  34  31  39  28  35  35  31  35 | 27.2  33.8
  17  |  16  15  21  15  18  27  32  46  42  33  25  33 | 18.7  35.2
  18  |  23  26  27  24  20  24  31  29  24  35  34  32 | 24.0  30.8
  19  |  20  18  24  24  16  22  28  23  30  22  23  16 | 20.7  23.7
  20  |  18  22  20  16  24  16  22  22  23  26  30  21 | 19.3  24.0
  21  |  17  21  21  18  15  24  24  23  27  37  29  25 | 19.3  27.5
  22  |
  23  |                      14  24  36  33  21  29  27 | 14.0  28.3
  24  |  11  19  25  18  15  22  32  42  23  32  27  25 | 18.3  30.2
  25  |  16  23  23  26  17  14  33  25  29  34  31  23 | 19.8  29.2
  26  |   8  22  24  25  24  25  34  31  38  22  30  26 | 21.3  30.2
  27  |  11  17  21  15  20  18  19  25  25  31  25  20 | 17.0  24.2
  28  |  17  13  28  23  14  22  17  32  35  32  28  22 | 19.5  27.7
  29  |  10  17  20  31  30  23  21  26  28  23  18  27 | 21.8  23.8
  30  |  11  17  16  27  24  19  18  19  31  27  30  26 | 19.0  25.2
 -----+-------------------------------------------------+-----------
 1997 |  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22 | *(1) **(2)
 Nov  |  UT


  * (1) average hourly rate between 11h -17h UT
  **(2) average hourly rate between 17h -23h UT

  . local time = JST = UT + 9 hours


      Chikara Shimoda

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer:  Ilkka Yrjola
Location:  Finland  (26 35' E, 60 54' N)
Frequency: 87.360 MHz
Receiver:  Salora SRP-22 modified, narrow band FM (B=15 kHz).
           detected signal level >-122 dBm.
           FM detection, no pulse noise rejection required.
Antenna: 2 element Yagi with 4 dBd gain to SW, azimuth 45 deg (SW)
Data sampling system: threshold triggering, sampling rate 64 ms.
  Computer logs total hourly elapsed reflection time, number of
  threshold crossings for the hour, the longest time the signal was
  continuously above detection level for the hour.
  Data stored in the Compact MS-Soft format. Software for viewing available
  from FTP.FUNET.FI  pub/ham/vhf-work/mssoft43.zip (420 K, new version!)
  I have completed the facelift upgrade with the Compact MS-Soft and you may
  now download the V5.0 software package from my homepage  www.sci.fi/~oh5iy

  Meteor counts in one hour intervals starting at:

                   Leonids 1997

       UT  | 16 Nov   17 Nov   18 Nov   19 Nov
       ----+----------------------------------
        0  |    231      288      418      344
        1  |    237      468      394      379
        2  |    289      524      418      387
        3  |    304      556      550      407
        4  |    310      817      371      442
        5  |    275      744      406      341
        6  |    280      970      464      411
        7  |    444      692      317      316
        8  |    236     1241      376      271
        9  |    216      825      263      240
       10  |    278      724      356      253
       11  |    333      392      232      222
       12  |    193      182      218      224
       13  |    168      186      187      229
       14  |    142      188      178      209
       15  |    125      123      215      205
       16  |    191      154      192      225
       17  |    138      174      218      200
       18  |    203      224      202      241
       19  |    219      221      222      287
       20  |    209      244      321      312
       21  |    223      286      322      357
       22  |    321      308      356      350
       23  |    332      271      351      264
       ----+----------------------------------
       UT  | 16 Nov   17 Nov   18 Nov   19 Nov


     Ilkka Yrjola

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Observer : W.T. Zanstra
Location : Appingedam, Netherlands (6 50' E, 53 19' N)
Frequency: 72.11 MHz
Transmitter Location:
           Wroclaw (16 43' E, 50 52' N), Poland, 135 kW, distance 735 km
Antenna  : Yagi, 5 elements, geographical azimuth 110 deg (ESE),
           elevation 12 deg
Receiver : Bearcat UBC 177XLT Scanning Radio, sensitivity 0.3 uV
Observing method: listening

 Forward scatter observations of Leonids and sporadic meteors in
 November 1997.

 Raw counts of reflections (corrected for dead time) during one
 hour intervals starting at:

     | November 1997    |  mean sporadic background
 UT  |  15  16  17  18  |    during 1995 and 1996
 ----+---------------------------------------------
 00  |          65  57  |       81
 01  |          59      |       86
 02  |          75      |       90
 03  |          61      |       92
 04  |          74      |       93
 05  |          88      |       92
 06  |          89      |       88
 07  |          78      |       85
 08  |  52  61  72  53  |       80
 09  |  43  56  47  59  |       73
 10  |  40  37  51  43  |       67
 11  |          45      |       60
 12  |          42      |       52
 13  |          31      |       46
     |                  |
 20  |  58              |       55
     |                  |
 22  |      55  68      |       68
 23  |      68  62      |       75
 ----+---------------------------------------------

Note:
 . during the Leonids the sporadic rate is higher than the rate of the
Leonids,
   including the sporadics. This is caused by the loss of the weaker signals
   during the Leonids.


      Wim Zanstra / via Ton Schoenmaker


2. ABOUT THE RMOB

The RMOB is an independent initiative of some workers in the field of radio
meteor scatter observations and data reduction. It started in August 1993 in
order to spread rapidly the Perseid results via E-mail. Since then, it has
appeared monthly, and it has gradually been expanded. In regularly publishing
summaries of observations, potential radio observers are kept up to date of
existing installations, possibilities and limitations of radio meteor
observations. In the long run, there should be sufficient observing stations
to cover the whole globe, allowing to detect stream outbursts which may
remain unnoticed visually.

RMOB contains typically: summaries of recent observations, equipment data,
first results of stream activity by radio methods, relations between radio
and optical meteors, references to other publications in the field of meteor
astronomy and radio scatter techniques, announcements of meetings, short
questions and answers, non-commercial (second hand) sale of radio equipment,
available software.

Contributors are mentioned, and interested persons are asked to contact them
directly.

RMOB can be copied freely in unabridged and unmodified form. Extracts should
indicate the source (Radio Meteor Obs Bulletin, month and year).

If you want to subscribe (or un-subscribe) to the E-mail distribution list,
please send a message to C. Steyaert.
Those not having access to E-mail can obtain a printed copy free of charge
from J. Van Wassenhove (current or back-issues).


3. CONTRIBUTORS / USEFUL ADDRESSES

Enric Fraile Algeciras (EA3BTZ)
Frederic Corominas 58, Torrelles de llobregat, E-08629 Barcelona
E-mail: EA3BTZ@mx3.redestb.es
http://www.redestb.es/personal/ea3btz  (in Spanish)

Michael Boschat
6306 Cork St., Apt.512, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
E-mail: andromed@atm.dal.ca

Eisse Pieter Bus
Groningen, Netherlands
E-mail: epbus@worldaccess.nl

Norman Davis WB6SHI
Shingle Springs, Ca, USA  
E-mail: normd@directcon.net

Maurice De Meyere
Hullekensstraat 24, B-9831 Deurle, Belgium
tel: +32 (9) 282 35 26
Call: ON4NU,  packet: on4nu@on1ced
E-mail: via Chris Steyaert

University of Ghent, Astronomical Observatory
Krijgslaan 281(S9), B-9000 Gent, Belgium
E-mail contact: Paul.Vauterin@oma.be,  Pierre.DeGroote@rug.ac.be

Werfried Kuneth
Ferndorf, Austria
Call: OE8FNK
E-mail: kuneth@net4you.co.at

Kimio Maegawa
Fukui National College of Technology, Electro-Information Course
Geshi, Sabae Fukui 916 JAPAN
Call:JA9BOH,JA9YDB
E-mail: kmaegawa@fukui-nct.ac.jp and/or HAG00032@niftyserve.or.jp
http://www.fukui-nct.ac.jp/~kmaegawa/hro

Alastair McBeath
IMO: International Meteor Organization
12A Prior's Walk, Morpeth, Northumberland, NE61 2RF, England, U.K.
E-mail: via Chris Steyaert

John Meyer
AZ, USA
E-mail: jrmeyer@POP.erols.com

Sadao Okamoto
E-mail: okamoto@jim.sugiyama-u.ac.jp

Chikara Shimoda
178, Hario, Asahi-mura, Higashitikuma-gun Nagano, Japan
Fax: +81-263-99-3532
E-mail: c-shimo@mtd.biglobe.ne.jp

Giovanni Sostero
Associazione Friulana di Astronomia e Meteorologia (AFAM)
E-mail: Giovanni.Sostero@elettra.trieste.it

Chris Steyaert, VVS
Kruisven 66, B-2400 Mol, Belgium
tel: +32 (14) 31 51 04
E-mail: steyaert@vvs.innet.be
Compuserve: 72650,3513

Jeroen Van Wassenhove, VVS
's Gravenstraat 66, B-9810 Nazareth, Belgium
tel: +32 (9) 385 61 09
E-mail: 100101.734@compuserve.com

Ilkka Yrjola
Jukolantie 16, FIN-45740 Kuusankoski, Finland
E-mail: upm20.ky.yrjolil@elvi.vtkk.fi
http://www.sci.fi/~oh5iy/
Call: OH5IY, packet radio:  OH5IY@OH5RBG.#KVL.FIN.EU

W.T. Zanstra
Spijkerlaan 13, 9903 BB  Appingedam, Netherlands
tel: +31 (0)596 625617
Email: via tonsch@nfra.nl

--
Christian Steyaert            (RMOB9711)               7 December 1997
--